Guide Field Guide to the Samoan Archipelago: Fish, Wildlife & Protected Areas

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Field Guide to the Samoan Archipelago: Fish, Wildlife, and Protected Areas

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Book Info. Review Area I Study. If hollow, the hollow center is generally open on the underside of the shell and forms a cavity known as the umbilicus. But in some cases it is almost or completely closed off. Some species continue growth throughout life. Others, however, stop growing when they become adult. At this point the shell often forms a thickened lip around the aperture.

There may also be structures, usually known as lamellae or teeth, within the shell aperture that restrict the opening. The surface of the shell may be smooth or sculptured. The sculpture may take the form of ridges or grooves that run either along the whorls in the direction of growth, or across the whorls. As the shell grows, the laying down of successive shell material at the aperture may produce fine transverse growth lines. Sculpture of the protoconch may differ from that of the rest of the shell. Sculpture may be worn down in old individuals.

Sculpture varies greatly among species. Some species have little or no sculpture but bear smooth, glossy shells. Some species bear thick, heavy shells, while others bear thin almost translucent shells. Shell color is very variable among species and, because it may also vary considerably within species, it is not always a good identification feature. However, once the snails inside them have died and the shells have lain exposed to rain and sunlight for some time, almost all shells turn opaque white.

Monitoring Herbivorous Fishes as Indicators of Coral Reef Resilience in American Samoa

Even shells that were very thin, translucent and glossy often turn opaque and white. Slugs are species that have lost their shells through the course of evolution. Some slugs retain a small vestige of a shell, which might be visible externally, or in some cases is completely internal. Semi-slugs have a larger shell but are unable to retract the body fully inside it. However, the internal anatomy of snails is important in their classification; some species can only be distinguished on the basis of differences in internal anatomy that can only be revealed by dissection.

Most species in this field guide are distinguishable without dissection. Some snails, known as operculates, carry a horny or calcareous structure, the operculum on their tails.

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When the snail withdraws into its shell, the operculum acts like a trap-door and seals the shell aperture. Operculate snails have only one pair of tentacles and the eyes are at the base of the tentacles. In those land snails with two pairs of tentacles belonging to the group known as pulmonates , the eyes are at the tips of the upper, longer pair of tentacles. Color is not a good identification feature. Slugs may also be very variable in color. Figure 4. Features of a snail body.

This is Succinea crocata Succineidae from 'Upolu. Its flat shell with little coiling is characteristic of the family.

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Only a few have Samoan names. This guide therefore uses the scientific names. Scientific names of animals are always in Latin and always formed from two words. The first is the generic name, which always begins with a capital letter and which places the species in a genus of closely related species. The second is the specific name, not capitalized, which defines the species within the genus. Both names are always italicized.

Sometimes, names are given to subspecies, which are geographic subdivisions of a species, but these are not included in this guide. When a species is mentioned for the first time in a book or article, the name of the person who first published its description and gave it its name, as well as the year in which the description was published, are often also given, following the species name.

Often, if it is clear which species is being discussed, the name is abbreviated to the first letter of the generic name, followed by the species name. For example, the Samoan tree snail Eua zebrina Gould, was described and named by the American naturalist Augustus Addison Gould in a work published in However, Gould named the species " Partula zebrina ", placing it in the genus Partula.

Subsequent workers decided that it should be placed in the genus Eua. Often the name can be abbreviated simply to E. They have never been connected to continental land masses. All the plants and animals that occur naturally on these islands arrived by chance dispersal or evolved on the islands from species that arrived by chance. Dispersal could have been by wind, perhaps blown high into the atmosphere during hurricanes and typhoons, and perhaps attached to leaves or other small bits of vegetation.

Some organisms could have dispersed attached to floating logs and other debris. Yet others could have been carried accidentally by birds. Small juveniles, or even eggs, might have been more likely to have been dispersed than larger adults. Successful colonization of a new island would have been a rare event, but over the millions of years of geological time, would have been sufficiently frequent to allow many kinds of organisms to reach newly formed islands.

Once there, many of these plants and animals evolved into diverse forms, taking advantage of the new ecological opportunities. Many of them, having evolved on a particular island, are unique to that island. Most original colonization of Pacific islands was in a west to east direction. Fagatele Bay is a submerged volcanic crater surrounded by steep cliffs. It contains the last remaining stretch of coastal rainforest on Tutuila Island.

A trail leads along Matautuloa Ridge to the lighthouse on the headland at Steps Point. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Village in American Samoa, United States. Bess Press. Page Pages Lonely Planet Publications. American Samoa Department of Commerce.

Territory of American Samoa. Pago Pago capital , Fagatogo seat of government.